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7. Sleep disorders

Hypnotics and sedatives (for anxiolytics see section 3.1)

 Hypnotics and sedatives

 Preparations

Comments

Hypnotics should be avoided in the elderly as they are at increased risk of becoming ataxic and confused leading to falls and injury. When hypnotics are used in the elderly lower starting doses should be used as elimination half life is significantly increased in this group and can lead to accumulation.

Clomethiazole

192mg capsules

For use in the elderly. Not for alcohol withdrawal.

Promethazine hydrochloride

10mg and 25mg tablets

25mg/5ml oral liquid

25mg/ml injection

Clinically significant anticholinergic side-effects.

Time to onset of action 1-2 hours.

Long duration of action (half life 16 -19 hours)

Injection for HPFT prescribing only

Temazepam

 

10mg and 20mg tablets

10mg/5ml oral solution

Time to onset of action: 30 to 60 mins.

Medium duration of action (half life 8 – 10 hours)

Treated as full controlled drug within HPFT.

Zopiclone

 

3.75mg and 7.5mg tablets

Time to onset: 15 to 30mins of action.

Short duration of action (half life 3.5 - 6 hours)

NICE TA77

Zolpidem

 

5mg and 10mg tablets

Time to onset of action: 7 to 27 mins

Short duration of action (half life 2.5 hours)

NICE TA77

Continue to 8.Substance dependence

 

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